The concept of solidarity builds the center of the SAFE-19 research agenda. We understand solidarity as a common action to overcome an emergency, based on a common goal and the willingness to incur substantial costs in order to achieve this goal (Sangiovanni 2015). On the basis of solidarity, a political community emerges, in which individuals share a sense of responsibility for one another (Lahusen 2016) and perceive themselves to be interdependent (Stjernø 2011). Sharing a common goal strengthens solidarity within a community (Sangiovanni 2015) and reinforces a sense of identity (Ross 2010). Although the topic of solidarity in times of crises in the last decade and in view of the multiple crises (financial, debt, migration, Brexit crisis) has been increasingly researched, "it is not clear at all under what conditions solidarity is supposed to arise and why" (Lindenberg 1998: 103). Our consortium therefore intends to shed light on the conditions and the reasons for solidarity and thus contributes to the understanding of solidarity in times of crisis in general and especially in the context of the COVID-19 crisis.

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Lindenberg S. (1998) Solidarity: 'Its microfoundations and macro-dependence. A framing approach', in P. Doreian and T. Fararo (eds) The problem of solidarity: Theories and models (Routledge).
Ross M. (2010) ' Solidarity—A New Constitutional Paradigm for the EU?', in M. Ross and Y. Borgmann-Prebil (eds) Promoting Solidarity in the European Union (Oxford)
Sangiovanni A. (2015) 'Solidarity as Joint Action', Journal of Applied Philosophy, 32(4), 340–59.
Stjernø S. (2011) 'The idea of solidarity in Europe', European Journal of Social Law, 1(3), 156–76.